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After an MI, the loss of architectural integrity exposes fibroblasts to mechanical stress, which together with specific hormones, growth factors, and cytokines induces fibroblast proliferation, migration to the injured area, and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts (van den Borne et al. 2010 ). Myofibroblasts are cells that exhibit characteristics of both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and are not present in healthy myocardium. The most prominent characteristic of myofibroblasts is their migratory and contracting phenotype, which results from the expression of contractile proteins such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and non-muscle myosin. They also exhibit extensive endoplasmic reticulum allowing them to synthesize and secrete large amounts of ECM proteins. Various myofibroblast markers have been described, but they all exhibit significant overlap with other cell types (van den Borne et al. 2010 ). However, α-SMA staining alone or in combination with a fibroblast marker is a commonly used strategy for the identification of myofibroblasts in cardiac tissue. The protomyofibroblast, an immature form of myofibroblast that exhibits actin stress fibers and mature focal adhesions but that does not express α-SMA, has been described in connection with other tissue injuries. Protomyofibroblasts are, however, still to be identified in infarcted myocardium.

In addition to local cardiac fibroblasts, other cell types can transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts and might contribute to cardiac fibrosis. Myofibroblasts derived from hematopoietic bone-marrow-derived progenitor cells, pericytes, epithelial cells of the epicardium (through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, EMT), and endothelial cells (through EndoMT) have been described in cardiac tissue (Möllmann et al. 2006 ; Zeisberg et al. 2007 ; van Amerongen et al. 2008 ; Russell et al. 2011 ; Duan et al. Marni 30MM TWO TONE LEATHER LOAFERS wQgI3gog
; Lajiness and Conway 2014 ; Davis and Molkentin Naot Mens Santa Barbara Slide Sandal 0J8wMGA
). However, the roles of myofibroblasts derived from the various cell types and their contribution to cardiac fibrosis are not clear and may depend on the type of cardiac injury. Strong evidence however suggests that the epicardium-derived resident cardiac fibroblasts constitute the primary source of activated fibroblasts or myofibroblasts in the ischemic heart (Ruiz-Villalba et al. ALDO BEIWEN Espadrilles black PfYVj0iwcC
) and in pressure-overload-induced fibrosis and remodeling (Ali et al. ecco SOFT Slipons black 4T3ozdS
; Moore-Morris et al. 2014 ). On the other hand, a recent study by Kramann et al. ( 2015 ) has shown that perivascular Gli1 + mesenchymal-stem-cell-like cells are key contributors in aortic banding-induced ventricular fibrosis. Upon injury, these cells differentiate into myofibroblasts, and their genetic ablation ameliorates fibrosis and preserves cardiac function. Although their role in MI-induced fibrosis has not been investigated, the finding that a substantial proportion of α-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts is derived from Gli1 + progenitors in fibrosis of various solid organs after diverse types of injury suggests that they also play a role in ischemia-induced cardiac injury. Taken together, local cardiac fibroblasts seem to represent the most important source of myofibroblasts in response to cardiac injury, but the contribution of other cell types, such as perivascular stem-cell-like cells, cannot be totally ruled out.

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Since the implementation of a “zero-tolerance” policy in April 2018 toward illegal entry (as well as attempted illegal entry) into the United States, criminal prosecutions of unauthorized border-crossers under the Trump administration have started to rise.

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of migrants apprehended by Customs and Border Protection (CBP) along the southwest border with Mexico jumped a full 30 percent from March to April. Since January alone, criminal prosecutions are up 60 percent—from 5,191 in January to 8,298 in April.

The greatest number of prosecutions in April took place in the Western District of Texas (2,767), followed by the Southern District of Texas (1,959). However, while Texas dominated in terms of absolute numbers, the greatest increase in prosecutions from January to April occurred in New Mexico, where prosecutions jumped 110 percent.

This increase follows Attorney General Jeff Sessions’ announcement on April 6, 2018, that anyone caught crossing the border would now face prosecution, as opposed to their countries of origin without facing criminal charges. The Attorney General told U.S. Attorney’s Offices all along the southwest border to adopt this enforcement philosophy and “prosecute those who choose to illegally cross over our border.” This edict is even being applied to migrants fleeing dangerous conditions in their home countries who come here seeking protection.

The new zero-tolerance policy builds upon Operation Streamline , under which migrants who illegally crossed into the United States in certain border sectors automatically faced prosecution. Streamline was created in 2005 during the George W. Bush administration and continued under the Obama administration as well. Under President Trump, a new variant of Streamline is spreading along the entire U.S.-Mexico border.

Treating all undocumented immigrants like hardened criminals is cruel enough, but the Trump administration has added a particularly vicious twist.

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